The first study on human pheromones was published in 1986 and there was immediately an avalanche of publicity with respected media bodies throughout the world reporting the study and its possible implications for the development of some kind of commercial human pheromone (such as Dr Cutler would later claim to have created with Athena Pheromones). This was however not the first research that had been carried out into menstrual cycles synchronizing, with Martha McClintock performing a study in 1971 that showed that women who live together started to have similar length menstrual cycles. Even more interestingly McClintock also carried out a follow-up study in 1998 which mimicked the 1985 study of Dr Winnifred Cutler and George Preti, only this time she wiped the sweat from under women’s arms onto the noses of other women, and this too influenced the length of the women’s menstrual cycles. Taken together then it seems clear that there is some pheromone type chemical that is active in both male and female underarm sweat, and the real question then becomes whether it is possible to isolate the active compounds, and bottle them to produce a real product that acts as a human pheromone in the way that most men think it should. When men think about human pheromones their primary thought is not about influencing the menstrual cycles of women. It is about appearing to be more attractive in the eyes of those women, and possibly gaining an attraction and reproductive advantage.
Founding The Athena Institute
And it was this idea that led Dr. Winnifred Cutler to found the Athena Institute, a biomedical research facility, in 1986 following the publication of her joint paper into menstrual cycles in women. It was during the next few years from 1986 to 1993 that she worked on copying the human pheromones she had identified in her earlier work, and on isolating the active compounds that had led to the effects in those studies. This work then led to the development of two different odorless and colorless pheromones by the Athena Institute in the 1990’s aimed at both men and women. The first of these was released in 1993 and was aimed at women. It was branded as Athena Pheromone 10:13 and it was designed to be a chemical copy for women of the same chemicals that sexually active and attractive women emit naturally when they are in their late twenties and early thirties. And in 1994 a version was developed for men and was branded as Athena Pheromone 10X. With this it was designed so that the product could be directly added to any aftershave product, as it was colorless and odorless. Throughout this period Dr. Cutler continued to be feted by the media and wrote several best-selling books including in 2009 “Hormones and Your Health: The Smart Woman’s Guide to Hormonal and Alternative Therapies for Menopause”.
The ABC 20/20 Study
In December 2005 the respected media outlet ABC carried out its own informal study into whether the Athena Pheromone products produced the desired outcomes, namely an increase in attraction from the opposite sex. There were two tests that were carried out, and whilst the results are very far from scientific proof, they are anecdotally compelling. The first involved a speed dating event. Two sets of twins, one female set and one male set, both in their twenties were sent to a speed dating event. One of each of the twins applied the Athena Pheromones, whilst the other had a placebo, but neither knew which was being applied. They then each went on 10, five minute dates, and at the end of the time their “Meet Me Again!” statistics were compiled. In each case the twin who had used the Athena Pheromone got considerably more requests to see them again. In the case of the women it was almost double the amount of men who wanted to see them again, 9 positive response for the pheromone wearer, and 5 for the non-wearer. And in the men’s case it was 10 out of 10 for the twin wearing the pheromone, and only 6 out of 10 for the non-wearer. In the second case two women in their 40’s were asked to wear the Athena Pheromones regularly for three months and keep a video diary. Both became convinced that they were getting more male attention.The area of human attraction is clearly always going to be complicated, but the role that human pheromones play in the love game may just be worth another look.
Life Without Pheromones and a VNO
What would happen if you couldn’t sense another person’s pheromones? Life would lose a good portion of its mystique and color. Without the ability to detect pheromones, it’s possible that humans would lack the anatomical hardware to make healthy decisions about their lives and loves. Perhaps you would fall in love with the wrong person over and over again, or find yourself in situations that could have been avoided with input from your sixth sense. Without your sixth sense and your ability to decipher other people’s pheromones, you wouldn’t be operating on all of your sensory cylinders. People born with atrophic gonads and non-functioning olfactory systems suffer from a congenital condition called Kallmann’s syndrome. Louis Monti-Bloch and colleagues found recently that patients who have this condition are also born without a Vomeronasal organ. In a groundbreaking study that served to further highlight the importance of the human VNO’s role in sexual development, Monti-Bloch, David Berliner, and fellow scientist Vicente Diaz-Sanchez studied ten male patients with Kallmann’s syndrome and found that four of them indeed did have a sense of smell. Why is this significant? For many years, Kallmann’s was thought to be the result of olfactory impairment alone. But, this study illuminated a startling fact: A percentage of Kallmann’s patients may actually have a working olfactory system, but in all cases they lack a functioning VNO.
Importance of Pheromonal VNO
The researchers, writing in their scientific abstract, “Absence of Vomeronasal Organ (VNO) Function in Patients with Hypogonadotropic Hypogonadism”, explain, “Our results show that in all ten . . . patients, the Vomeronasal-terminalis was non-functional. However, four of these patients had a functional olfactory system, which does not conform with the definition of Kallmann’s syndrome present in the other six patients. . . . We are describing for the first time a syndrome characterized by hypogonadotropic hypogonadism with a functional olfactory system and without a functional Vomeronasal system.” Kallmann’s syndrome is thought to occur when the hypothalamus fails to make adequate quantities of GnRH—gonadotropin- releasing hormone. GnRH regulates the release of sex hormones in the pituitary gland, adrenals, testes, and ovaries. It’s you reading things into it, that are not there. The Iron Rule is to not co-habitate with a girl that you are not willing to marry within 6 months. If what you say is true, then how could it ever have this content? Why would the author be married, and claim that he has been so happily for years? Pheromones can play a huge role in how you perceive women and boost your confidence of course. Pheromones are integral to dating and sex. Pherazone is one of the most popular colognes and perfumes on the market that uses a very powerful concentration of formulated pheromones to make women more attracted to men. The best one to get is Pherazone ultra since it contains 72mg per bottle. You will love the results.
Garcia-Velasco located a symmetrical pair of VNOs in all but 192 of his patients. Of those 192, 125 had septal pathologies—twisted and distorted nasal septums that obscured the organ. Impressed with their findings, they began to worry that patients undergoing nasal surgery might be losing their VNOs simply be- cause their surgeons are not aware of either the organ’s existence or its importance. They wrote: “These findings, together with data from other electronmicroscopic and neurophysiological studies, should be taken into consideration because of possible problems that might result by performing surgical alterations on the nose without preserving the VNO. “Thus, we need to start thinking about preserving the VNO in any nasal operation, especially in the surgical correction of the twisted nose associated with severe septal deviation.” Every year, hundreds of thousands of people undergo nasal surgery, either to correct a health problem or to improve their appearance. The hope is that Garcia-Velasco’s warning will be heeded by plastic surgeons and that many VNOs will be saved as a result.
Studies involving male and female rodents have shown that removing the VNO results in drastic hormonal suppression and permanently altered or abandoned mating patterns. Because the neural tissues of the VNO can regenerate, complete removal of the tissue is necessary to accurately document what happens when the VNO is removed. Leaving even a tiny portion of VNO epithelium (tissue) intact can fool the pheromone-receiving system into thinking the organ is still functional. Researchers found that removing the VNO of a male mouse left him unable to respond to pheromones as he would normally to the sexual cues of a female of his species. A male mouse with an intact VNO usually experiences a boost in luteinizing hormone (LH), which stimulates testosterone production when he is exposed to the urine of the female mouse. This initial surge in LH causes the male’s testosterone levels to spike, giving him the desire to engage in sexual activity. If he doesn’t have a VNO with which to process the female’s chemical sex signals, or pheromones, his reproductive behavior and ability to procreate are either greatly diminished or halted. Another study found that male guinea pigs whose VNOs had been removed stopped exhibiting a common behavior: wagging and bobbing their heads in response to the pheromone-laden urine of the female. At the time of this writing, no experiments had been conducted to determine what would happen to a person if his or her VNO were purposefully removed. This is not surprising—who would volunteer for such a study? Nevertheless, surgeons who repair nasal deformities or conduct rhinoplasty should be careful to avoid the accidental removal of the patient’s VNO during the surgery.
More About Pheromones
We know that pheromones help us to make decisions about the people in our lives. However subconsciously we may process those chemical messages, they are important to us nonetheless. But, what happens to us when we go about our business without the one—on-one communication that facilitates the workings of the sixth sense? Here are a few scenarios for you to think about: Many Americans work from their homes. Are people who work alone, away from their “tribe,” subject to pheromone de- 2 privation? Would they be better off working in offices, where pheromones ﬂoat up and down the corridors and into conference rooms?